Agriculture, Horticulture & Allied based Livelihood

The justification for ILSP is the need to stop the deterioration of the productive infrastructure, make farm labour more productive and farming more remunerative, and hence provide incentives for people to invest their time and resources in agriculture. Despite the disadvantages that agriculture faces in the hill areas, Uttarakhand does have the advantage of cooler temperatures at higher altitudes, allowing production of off-season vegetables (OSV) and temperate fruits.

The horticultural sector is less developed in Uttarakhand than in the other hill states, so there is also considerable potential for growth, in other niche products such as spices, medicinal and aromatic plants and fruit nuts.

The population is fairly well educated, but the level of youth unemployment is relatively high. Therefore, proper vocational training will help such people find good quality self employment opportunities in the Agriculture& Horticulture and allied   growth sectors of the state .

Challenges

  • 92% are small & marginal farmers
  • Landslides and soil Erosion
  • Poor soil health conditions
  • Scarcity of Water ( Only 10% irrigated & 90 % un-irrigated )
  • Non availability of improved technology or Modern Technology
  • Poor quality seed (Seed replacement Ratio is less than 10%)
  • Scattered & Fragile land
  • Wild animal infestation on all crops
  • Non availability of quality inputs timely
  • More incidence of insect & disease on crops
  • Lack of services for various types of risk mitigation ( Production to Market level)
  • Transportation of produce is difficult and has high cost in hilly region
  • No processing facility at production site or nearby areas
  • No marketing supporting infrastructures at production site or nearby areas.
  • No markets of crop produces at local level, district level & state level.
  • Irregular and Inadequate credit and marketing facilities.
  • Seasonal Migration and permanent migration for better livelihood

Uttarakhand Perspective

Transportation of produce is difficult and has high cost in hilly region
Diversify agro-climatic conditions; More  than 2500 crop species
66% forest land; 14 % area is under cultivations
55% cultivated land is rain fed
Irrigated land – 10 % in hill, 87 % in plain
Average land holding 0.68 ha (scattered) in hills, 1.77 ha in plains
92% are small  & marginal farmers
Technology- GBPUAT – Agriculture University & VPKAS – Research Institution, VCSGU Horticulture
Technology- GBPUAT – Agriculture University & VPKAS – Research Institution, VCSGU Horticulture

Major crops in the Project area

S.No. Groups/ value chains Major crops
1. Traditional Mountain Crops Finger millet, Barnyard millet,  Foxtail millet, Prasomillet,  Amaranths, Baranaza , wheat, paddy ( normal rice & red rice), Mustard,  barley , Maize,  Flex & buckwheat
2. Pulses Rajma, Gahat, soybean, Lentil, Tor, Naurangi, Rains, black gram, Lobia, black soya etc.
3. Vegetables Potato, Tomato, Cabbage, vegetable Pea, French bean, capsicum, Radish,  Vegetable Rai, Spinach, Fenugreek, Cauliflowers, Beat root, Broccoli, Cucurbits, Arbi, Pumpkin, Bringale, Turnip,
4. Spice Turmeric, Ginger, Onion, Garlic, Coriander,  Chilly, Perilla , large cardamom, Bay leaf ( Tejpat)
5. Fruits Walnut, Almond, Apple, Peach, Pear ,Plum , Apricot, litchi, Mango, Guava, Malta, citrus, kiwi, pomegranate , Strawberry,
6. Medicinal & aromatic plants Kut, Kutaki, Tulsi, rosemary, thyme,
7. Others Flower cultivation- Marigold, fodder grasses & crops

Action Plan to increase Production & Productivity

  1. Ensure 100% Implementation of Food Security Improvement Plan (FSIP) at HHs / PG level
  2. Saturation of all HHs with the Services of Farm Machinery Bank (Pre-production to marketing)
  3. Introduction of soil health card by soil testing practices and use of compost /fertilizer on the basis of recommendation.
  4. Application of improved package of practices for any type crop production by HHs
    • Use of good quality improved seed of High yielding Crop Varieties
    • Seed treatments
    • Line sowing
    • Recommended dose of compost and fertilizers
    • Timely irrigations or life saving irrigations
    • Timely inter-culture operations (weeding, Hoeing, Mulching, Pruning etc.)
    • Integrated disease & insect management – use of light traps and plant protection kit.
    • Improved harvesting practices
    • Crops residue management
    • Improved threshing practices / post harvest Management
    • Packaging & storage of produce in standard practices.
  1. Use less water required variety seed for crops
  2. Water conservation & storage practices for life saving irrigation in crops during scarcity of rains or February to June month period. (by drip & sprinkler method)
  3. Promote pulses & millet cultivation in un-irrigated areas
  4. Use of compost manure in crop production by the use of Bio- decomposer
  5. Application of mulching practices – use of crop waste/residue
  6. Promote bee keeping practices in all production area
  7. Integrated Nutrient Management by adopting following practices
    • Intercropping or mixed cropping
    • Crop rotation practices (Rotation of crops in field every year)
    • Crop diversification (new cash crops)
    • Use of vermi-compost and compost manure
  1. Availability of risk mitigation services (Crop Insurance schemes – Pradhan Mantri Crop Insurance Schemes and Weather based crops Insurance schemes.
  2. Protection of crops from wild and grazing animals
  3. Promotion of protected cultivation – Poly house and shed net farming etc.
  4. Establishment of aggregation point with primary processing facility at village level.
  5. Ensure marketing of all produces of HHs through collective marketing by the Livelihood collective at premium price.
  6. Updates of technology to HHs by the capacity building programmes twice in a year.
  7. Delivery of right information at right time through use of mobile app.
  8. Establishment of Hi-tech nursery for quality planting materials –seedlings & saplings

Major Value chains

S.N Value Chain Main Activities Groups Households
1 Off Season Vegetables Potato, Cabbage, Capsicum, Tomato, Pea, Onion, French Bean, European Vegetables, Mushroom 4898 48000
2 Dairy Fodder bank, Milk collection center, ILDC, 4590 43000
3 Goatry Goatry, Fodder & Feed Unit 798 8000
4 Poultry Mother unit, Kuroiler bada, Rearing unit, Fodder & Feed Unit 367 4500
5 Spices Coriander, Chilly, Turmeric, Ginger, Garlic 3800 38600
6 Traditional Crop Paddy, Manduwa, Ramdana, Red Rice, Millet, Amranthus etc. 4390 43900
7 Pulses Rajma, Soyabean, Masoor, Gahat, Tor, Urd 1875 18750
8 Fruit Citrus, Stone Fruits, Mango, Pears,  Apple 3650 36500
9 Aromatic and Medicinal Plant Mari Gold, Rose, Damask Rose, Scanted Rose, Kut, Kutki 290 2900
10 Eco- Tourism Home stay, base camp, trekking route 89 900
11 RNFS- enterprise Handicraft, Fodder & Feed Unit, Input-Output Center, Canteen 276 2800
12 Service Sector THR, RUTF, Government Institutions, Hostels, Training, Survey, Insurance, Micro Finance 1750 16000

Details of Groups under value chain models

S.No.   Value chain Business Model Focused crops interventions No of PG/VPG involved
1. Soil to Market ( S2M) Traditional crops , Pulses ,  vegetables, MAPs, spices 6644
2. Farm to Fork Cash crops , & Fruits , European Vegetables 2574
3. Farm to table Dairy products, Poultry products , Bakery products , Prasad making 2194
4. Seed to Bazaar Seed production – spices, traditional crops ,  medicinal & aromatic plants 245
5. Market to Farm European vegetable colored capsicum,  Cherry tomato, Cabbage , Strawberry , Kiwi & Papaya , walnut & stone fruits , Honey 987